What is the difference between LF, HF, and UHF frequencies?
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What is the difference between LF, HF, and UHF frequencies?

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-03-16      Origin: Site

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In RFID technology, data is transmitted between an RFID tag and a reader using radio waves. Its read distance and functionality are determined by its frequency.

Low Frequency (LF), High Frequency (HF), and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) are the three primary frequencies used with RFID devices.

What's the difference between these frequencies?

When RFID devices are used, each frequency behaves differently. In order to accomplish your desired functions, you should select a tag with an appropriate frequency.

This article enumerates the features, advantages, and disadvantages of each of the frequencies for your consideration.

Frequency - what is it?

Frequency refers to the number of waves passing through a fixed object at a given time. The frequency will be two waves per second if a wave takes 0.5 seconds to pass through an object.

Generally, the higher the frequency, the more waves pass through the object per second (usually).

The unit of frequency is Hertz (Hz), where one Hz represents one wave. In view of the fact that many waves will pass through objects per second, the unit is further classified as follows:

  • The kilohertz frequency (kHz). One thousand hertz is the unit of measurement

  • The megahertz (MHz). One million hertz is represented by this unit

  • GHz stands for gigahertz. One billion hertz is the unit of measurement

  • The terahertz (THz). A trillion hertz is one trillion cycles per second

An ordinary radio spectrum ranges from 3 kilohertz to up to 3000 gigahertz. RFID devices are affected by their frequency.

As an example;

A low-frequency tag will have a reading range of approximately 10 cm, while an ultra-high frequency tag will have a reading range of up to 100 meters.

Low Frequency: Whatis it? An overview of the definition and brief description

An object with a low frequency has fewer waves passing through it than one with a high frequency.

The frequency ranges from 125 kHz to 134 kHz.

When using an LF device, approximately 125,000 to 134,000 waves will pass through the object every second.

Low Frequency Features

  • The frequency ranges from 30 kHz to 300 kHz. 125 kHz is, however, the best frequency for operation

  • A short reading range of up to 10 cm is possible

  • Interference with radio waves is unlikely

  • Reading speed is slower

  • Wavelengths that are longer

Low Frequency Advantages

  • Longer wavelengths make them easier to penetrate metallic objects. Metallic objects work best with these tags because of this feature.

  • Radio waves are less likely to interfere with it. LF tags can be used in highly electromagnetic environments thanks to this feature.

  • Surfaces with liquids work best

Low Frequency Disadvantages

  • Data transfer rates are slow. Multiple tags cannot be read simultaneously with these tags.

  • Range of reading is short. Your reader must be at most 10 centimeters away from the LF tag in order to capture data. The technology cannot be used to track assets that are located far apart, which makes it a highly limiting feature.

Definition of high frequency

All frequencies between 3 MHz and 30 MHz fall within the high-frequency band. In contrast, RFID HF systems operate at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHZ.

Compared to the LF, the frequency has a wider reading range. Therefore, HF tags are ideal for tracking items up to 1 meter away from the reader.

High Frequency Features: What are they?

  • Frequencies in the band range from 3 to 30 MHz

  • The reading range is between 10 cm and 1 meter

  • Interference from other radio waves is moderately sensitive to them

  • Useful for contactless payments and ticketing

High Frequency Advantages

  • It is possible for them to operate in relatively moist conditions.

  • Comparatively fast data transfer rates.

  • The MIFARE protocol is governed by several HF standards, including ISO 15693 for object tracking and ISO/IEC 14443A & ISO/IEC 14443 for MIFARE usage.

  • Up to 1 meter of reading range.

  • The LF tags are more affordable.

High Frequency's shortcoming

  • Better than LF when you need to read many tags simultaneously

  • Interfere moderately with radio waves

Ultra-High Frequency: What is it?

The ultra-high frequency band covers all frequencies between 300 MHz and 3 GHz. The device has a reading range of up to 12 meters. The majority of UHF systems operate between 900 MHz and 915 MHz. Toll payments and parking systems are usually managed using this frequency.

Ultra-high Frequency Features

  • The range of the device is up to 40 feet/12 meters

  • The cheapest tag on the market

  • It complies with the UHF Gen2 standard (ISO 18000-63)

  • RFID segment with the fastest growth

UHF's advantages

  • Both HF and LF are more expensive

  • There is a wide reading range of up to 12 meters with the tags

  • When compared to LF and HF, it has the fastest data transfer rate

UHF's disadvantages

  • It is the most sensitive frequency. Radio waves can interfere with it

  • Metallic and liquid surfaces are not compatible

How Do Low Frequency, High Frequency, and Ultra High Frequency Differ?

Data is transmitted using radio waves at all of these frequencies. There are, however, significant differences in the number of waves that pass through objects.

Their features and functionality differ as a result of these differences. Low-frequency tags, for example, offer long wavelengths that are ideal for use with metallic and liquid objects. Due to its long wavelength, it is easy to penetrate metallic objects. The downside is that these tags are only capable of reading up to 10 cm away from the reader.

LF tags are best used when:

  • Tracking fruits, vegetables, beverages, and other high-water content foods

  • Tags for animals

  • Because of the limited read range of access cards, access control can be used with them.

A high-frequency tag can be read from a distance of up to one meter. These tags are ideal for tracking objects without getting too close to them. The HF tags are ideal for locating items in your store using a portable reader.

Furthermore, HF tags cannot penetrate metallic objects. It also works well with substances containing medium to high levels of water. Tags can be used to track patients' progress in hospitals, library books, and transportation.

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