RFID Standards: What are they? This is an all-inclusive guide
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RFID Standards: What are they? This is an all-inclusive guide

Views: 1     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-03-06      Origin: Site

Standards for RFID ensure the interoperability of RFID devices and components.Guidelines assist manufacturers in knowing what features and specifications they should include in their products.Due to this knowledge, all RFID products on the market will be compatible regardless of manufacturer.

Standardization is done by a number of regulatory organizations, including the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), EPC Global, and the American Standards Institute (ANSI).An overview of the specific standards that guide the design and features of RFID components is provided in this article.

What are RFID Standards?

RFID standards regulate the manufacturing and use of RFID technology.Their primary responsibility is to ensure the security, compatibility, and efficacy of RFID communication protocols.The standards make RFID use flawless in the following ways:

  • Enhanced Security. Data is transferred from one device to another using RFID.As a result of RFID standards, data transfer is guaranteed to be safe.

  • Ease of Use. All RFID tags must be compatible since they are globally accepted.It is important that company A's RFID tag is compatible with company B's RFID reader, for example.

  • Operation Safety when Used on Human Beings/ Animals. Each frequency wavelength used on a tag is examined by regulatory bodies for strength and nature.Analyses are conducted to determine if the tag is safe and effective on animals and humans.Due to their compatibility and efficacy on moist surfaces, Low Frequency (LF) RFID tags are recommended for use on animals.

It is imperative that you only buy RFID components that meet the RFID standards if you wish to experience all of these benefits first-hand.

Why RFID Standards are Important

Regulating RFID components is crucial as it creates a much-needed uniformity.As a result of the guaranteed interoperability, two different companies' products can be used without compromising their effectiveness.

As the market is global, these regulations also help to increase competition.Therefore, standardized RFID products are relatively affordable since the regulations have eliminated any chance of monopolies.

Classification of RFID Standards

  • Industry-Specific RFID Standards. RFID regulations are developed to regulate industries such as veterinary services, security, and tracking.

  • Global RFID Standards. Global RFID operations are regulated by these standards set by international bodies.In addition to the International Standards Organization (ISO), GS1 is a prominent global regulatory agency.

  • Regional RFID Standards. RFID operations in regions are regulated by these standards.ISM RFID bands are regulated by FCC Part 15 in the US, for example.It defines frequencies between 5725 and 5850 MHz, 2400.0 and 2483.5 MHz, and 900 and 928 MHz.

  • National RFID Standards. These are national regulations that govern RFID operations within a specific country.China's Standardization Administration (SAC) is one such body.In addition to the NPC, the Article Numbering Center of China (ANCC) and the Electronic Product Code (EPC) coding scheme are also part of the system.Indian, Australian, and Singapore are also countries with regulatory bodies.

Who Develops RAIN RFID Standards?

RAIN RFID - what is it?Millions of users have access to billions of items through this branch of RFID.Real-time data is provided to businesses and consumers through passive wireless technology.Once the data is collected, the items are located, authenticated, and accessed.

It is the EPC UHF Gen2v2 standard or ISO/IEC 18000-63 that regulates RAIN RFID networks.There are several other international bodies that can regulate RAIN RFID, including GS1, ISO, IEC, and JTC1.

Federal Communication Commission (FCC), European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and Spectrum Compliance Asia also regulate RAIN RFID usage.

A RAIN RFID system can also be regulated by industry organizations like the International Air Transport Association (IATA), Association of American Railroads (AAR), and American Trucking Association (ATA).

RFID Standards – A Comprehensive Guide

This section has all the RFID standards that you should consider before buying your RFID system. They include:

ISO Standards

  1. ISO/IEC 18000-1

In this standard, the generic architectural concepts of RFID identification are regulated.RFID components should use standardized air interface parameters.At the reference point delta, it can only exchange/transact data across the air interface.

  1. ISO/IEC 18000-2

It defines the parameters to be used for communication between a Low Frequency (LF) RFID tag and an interrogator.At frequencies below 135 kHz, it regulates all tags' functionality.

In addition, it specifies commands, protocols, and methods for detecting the signals of one tag among many others.It prevents tag collisions, affecting communication, and compromising the security of data.

All other standard components are mandatory, but anti-collision standards are optional.

  1. ISO/IEC 18000-3

In this standard, guidelines are provided for air interface communication at a frequency of 13.56 MHz.Tag collision management, physical layer, and protocol values are defined.

  1. ISO/IEC 18000-4

All RFID air interface protocols that operate at 2.45 GHz frequency wavelength are outlined in this standard.The document defines two modes:

  • Passive tags that operate as an interrogator talk fast (ITF)

  • Battery-assisted tags that operate as a tag talk fast (TTF)

  1. ISO/IEC 18000-6

Physical interactions between readers/interrogators and RFID tags are governed by this standard.This standard specifies protocols, commands, and measures for preventing collisions in passive RFID systems operating within the 860 to 960 MHz range (Ultra-High Frequency Range).Among the three non-compatible types are Type A (rarely used), Type B (equivalent to EPCglobal Gen2), and Type C (equivalent to EPCglobal Gen3).

  1. ISO/IEC 18000-7

It defines an air interface for RFID devices that operate active RFID tags at a frequency of 433 MHz.This category of tags operate up to 5 inches (3 meters) away.

  1. ISO 14443

Proximity cards that operate using Near Field Communication (NFC) technology are governed by this standard.They are used for identification, security, payment, and access control, and operate at 13.56 MHz.Cards regulated by ISO 14443 can operate within a 10 cm range.

  1. ISO 15693

A near-field inductive coupling proximity card standard was developed to regulate its operation.The cards operate at 13.56 MHz and can be read at a distance of approximately one meter compared to proximity cards.Contactless smart cards are used in parking lots and to manage parking.

EPCglobal/ GS1 GEN 2

EPC Radio-Frequency Identity Protocols Class 1 Generation 2 Ultra High RFID protocol for 860-960 MHz is also known as this standard.ISO 18000-6C approved the standard later in 2015, after EPCglobal (now GS1) created it in 2013.

In this standard, air interface parameters are defined for RFID tags operating within the 860-960 MHz range.Gen2v2 is the latest version, which was developed in 2013.

Unique Features of Gen2v2 Standards

  • Three Diverse Modes. There are three modes of operation for this reader: single mode, multi mode, and dense mode.Hundreds of readers can be used simultaneously in dense mode.

  • Dynamic Encoding Methods. In Gen2v2 RFID readers, encoding techniques can be switched according to the environment.An RFID reader may use FM0 encoding in a low-noise environment (which is faster) and Miller subcarrier (which is slower but more efficient) in a noisy environment.By doing this, you will get the best results no matter what the conditions are.

  • Fast Data Transmission Rate. Data transmitted by Gen2v2 RFID systems can reach 640 Kbps, which is five times faster than previous standards.

  • More Commands for Easy Tag Population Management. RFID system Gen2v2 provides access, selection, and inventory commands.As a result of these features, tag reading is more accurate and reliable.

  • Enhanced Safety. With these standards, access passwords can be extended to 32 bits and kill passwords can be used to disable tags easily.RFID systems are designed with this feature to ensure data security.

  • Four Sessions Operations. It is possible to store up to four RFID sessions on a tag that meets the Gen2v2 standards.A tag can be read by four readers simultaneously without interference.

  • Random Generated Numbers for Data Protection. Tags compliant with Gen2v2 transmit randomly generated numbers to readers.Unauthorized tags cannot be written with this unique feature.

  • More Programmability. A Gen2v2 RFID tag has four different memory banks.It is possible to create a bank that has read-only, read/write, and write once components-this provides greater flexibility when creating applications.

  • Enhanced Q Algorithm. Tag collisions are resolved in a more efficient manner and data transfers to and from the reader are more secure as a result of this feature.

A more advanced upgrade of Gen2v2 called Gen2 (V1) offers even more versatility, memory, and security.

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