The Beginner’s Guide to Radio Frequency Identification
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The Beginner’s Guide to Radio Frequency Identification

Views: 4     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-03-06      Origin: Site

What is RFID?

RFID tags or smart labels contain digital data encoded with radio-frequency signals.Using radio waves, an RFID reader captures this data and stores it in a computer database.

Features of RFID

RFID devices can electronically identify items thanks to its unique combination of features.As RFID does not require a direct line of sight between the tag and reader, it can operate effectively in a variety of environments, unlike barcodes.RFID has the following main features:

Unique ID

Retail goods, construction equipment, and batches of items found in warehouses can be accurately identified using this technology.Based on available information such as location, date, time, and temperature, the system uses artificial intelligence and automation to identify and automatically update data records.

No Direct Contact

RFIDs can read and write information without direct contact.An RFID reader does not need to be directly in sight of the RFID tag.The technology uses radio waves to communicate, just as its name suggests.Ensure that the tags are within the range of the reader.

Automatic Recognition

An RFID tag containing specific information is attached to an item, and then an ID is transmitted to the reader to be stored.To read the tag's ID automatically, the reader must be placed at a particular point and within its range.In addition, mobile devices and tablets can be integrated with readers.When the tags are passed near such devices, they are easily scanned.

Simultaneous Access to Multiple RF Tags

RFID systems are capable of accessing information stored in multiple RF tags simultaneously if they have the proper functionality that allows them to read information from several tags simultaneously if they are within transmission range.

Can Detect Hidden Objects

Due to its ability to read multiple tags simultaneously, such a system can also detect "hidden" items.A tag can be seen if it is positioned correctly and within the transmission range, for instance if multiple items are in a rack or moving on a conveyor belt.There are several factors that determine how well a tag is read, including where the reader is placed, how close it is to the tag, the type of tag, the surface material, and the type of environment.

Durable and Weatherproof Tags

The rugged design of RFID tags makes them ideal for use in a range of environments, unlike barcodes.Many types of tags are available for specific purposes, including underwater use or hazardous/contaminated environments.

No Need for Battery Power

There are two kinds of RFID tags: passive and active. Passive tags don't require batteries.In most cases, they are activated by the power source provided by the reader.Having a miniature size and being able to embed them easily in small items adds to their versatility.Also, passive tags can survive for years in extreme environmental conditions, extending their shelf life.

Reliable and Flexible Systems

The RFID system combines the information relevant to each item with the item itself in a flexible and reliable manner.This results in a reliable and correct configuration of things as a result of such a system.It is possible to create decentralized information systems with reduced loads by using RFIDs.As a result, systems can be implemented easily and quickly.Furthermore, flexible plans can be changed as needed.

Reliable Communication

Radio frequency identification tags are designed with advanced, innovative technologies and integrated with radio frequency transmission protocols.Cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs) are added to information when it is transmitted.Furthermore, the burst error ratio of this system is 00.99%, meaning the information is transferred reliably.

How Does RFID Work?

Among the main components of an RFID system are:


The purpose of these devices is to store and transmit data.Information is encoded on RFID tags attached to items.In addition to storing programmable data, tags have embedded microchips.The reader receives this stored data through antennas.


Data is transmitted from RFID tags to RFID readers via RFID antennas.Depending on the RFID system, the reader may have an external antenna or an integrated antenna for receiving and sending signals.


RFID systems are considered to have "brains".RFID readers are essential because they convert radio waves received by RFID systems into digital data stored in a computer database.A RFID reader connects to an antenna and receives data from the tags.Due to the fact that they receive and transmit radio waves, they are also known as interrogators.

Computer Database

To make it easy to access and retrieve stored data in tags, computer databases are used.In addition to configuring hardware, managing data and devices, programming tags, and even providing remote monitoring, such systems are capable of managing data and devices.

Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) is the technology used by RFIDs.In AIDC, specific objects are automatically identified and related data is collected about them.Furthermore, RFID allows data to be directly stored in computer databases with very little or no human intervention.All of these processes are facilitated by radio waves.

RFID tags with integrated circuits store relevant information by utilizing their main components.There might be a combination of it with a data transmission antenna.Radio waves are received by the reader/interrogator, which converts them into meaningful data.Information is transferred from tags to the host computer's database, which can be analyzed in the future.

RFID Applications

Even though most people are unaware of it, RFID technology is applicable to many industries.It is used for the following purposes:

  1. Medical industry

RFID can be applied to several aspects of healthcare.RFID-based wristbands, for instance, can be used to retrieve patient information and medical histories to enhance patient safety.RFID sensors can also facilitate improved inventory control by enhancing monitoring and tracking specific medical procedures.

  1. Aerospace and Supply Chain

RFID systems are heavily used in these industries.RFID technology is usually used by airframers to monitor airplane parts, for instance.Furthermore, such methods are ideal for improving supply chain processes in manufacturing.

As a result of RFID, tracking equipment in aerospace and defense is more efficient and eliminates the need for manual check-ins and check-outs.It is crucial to minimize manual labor in the supply chain by using automated tracking systems.

  1. Internet of Things Technologies (IoT)

Manufacturing companies must use IoT to maximize productivity effectively.An RFID system can be useful in organizing, analyzing, and documenting data throughout a product life cycle.Additionally, RFID readers allow manufacturing industries to identify, monitor, and track data in real-time.

Furthermore, RFID can improve data interoperability by ensuring that the right tagged assets can share information easily.In order to enable essential decisions, this is crucial.

  1. Government Libraries

Assets are monitored by electromagnetic strips and barcodes in most government libraries.This type of institution uses RFID technology to read barcodes and keep track of several items simultaneously.In these libraries, queues are reduced since people can self-check.

  1. Race Timing

In time races and marathons, RFID systems are commonly used.The tags are usually activated before the data in the tag IDs is transmitted to the race timing software when race participants with RFID tags cross timing lines, such as start and finish lines.

  1. Toll Road Payments

One of the highway toll payment systems that uses RFID tags is the E-Z pass found in the Eastern states.The system is designed to collect toll payments electronically from passing cars.Passing through the E-Z lane automatically deducts the amount from the commuter's pre-paid card.As a result, traffic congestion on highways is reduced since cars don't have to stop at toll booths.

  1. Passport Information

Several countries, including the US, Spain, Japan, and Norway, use RFID tags to identify passport holders.Additionally, passport tags can be used to track visitors entering and leaving the country.

  1. Door Locks

RFID cards are used by hotels to manage customer information.These cards are often used to turn on lights and lock doors.Additionally, this technology informs hotel management when customers are in their rooms.

  1. Tool Tracking

RFID tags can be used by industries and organizations that utilize a wide variety of tools.Using RFID technology, asset management can be made simple since tools can be tracked in-store and in-use.Additionally, this technology allows organizations to determine if they have enough equipment since it can be used in management.


Information that is intended to be transmitted for storage or analysis is contained in them.RFID tags are usually classified according to the frequency they're designed to operate at.There are three main classifications of tags:

I. Low-Frequency Tags (LF)

A primary frequency range of 125 and 134 kHz is used.In comparison with the other two RFID frequencies, LF can read only a few inches away and has the slowest data transfer rate due to its low frequency.Additionally, LF usually stores small amounts of data.

Access control, asset tracking, and key-fobs are some of the applications.

II. High-Frequency Tags (HF)

HF has a primary frequency range of around 13.56 MHz and a read range of 10 cm to 1 m.Worldwide, this is the most widely used frequency range.In terms of data storage, it is larger than LF and supports up to 4k of data.Additionally, HF can read multiple tags simultaneously, including wood, water, and metal, while attached to a variety of objects.

The card can be used for credit cards, airline baggage, and personal identification.

III. Ultra-High Frequency Tags (UHF)

There are two types of UHF tags:

UHF Active tags have large memory capacities and are battery-operated.Active tags use 433 MHz as their primary frequency range.With high data transfer rates, it can read data from 30M to 100M+.Construction and auto manufacturing industries use it.

A UHF Passive tag is usually powered by the energy generated by an RFID reader.A wide variety of passive tags are available with primary frequencies ranging from 860 MHz to 960 MHz.The tags also transmit data at high rates and can be read up to 25 meters away.Supply chain tracking, electronic rolling, and manufacturing are common uses for them.

RFID Readers

RFID readers can befixed or mobile.Generally, mobile RFID readers are handheld devices that can be moved from place to place, allowing them to support reading flexibility.In order to promote flexibility, such readers are essential.

In addition to mobile RFID readers, there are sleds that use Bluetooth or auxiliary connections to connect to smart devices.

Readers that are fixed and powered remain in one location.The equipment sits quietly in corners of buildings and collects vast quantities of accurate data on a continuous basis.Their ability to thrive in a wide range of environments makes them the real workhorses of this industry.

There are generally one to eight additional antennas that can be connected to fixed RFID readers with external antennas.With the help of multiplexers, some of these readers can also connect up to 32 antennas.It depends on the required area of coverage how many antennas are attached to a reader.Small areas of applications would still benefit from one antenna.

Readers can be recognized by their flexibility in movements, so we have fixed and mobile readers.Other categories of RFID readers include features, power options, antenna ports, connectivity, and processing capabilities.

•Power options: USB, POE, and power adapter.

• Antenna ports: No external ports or 1, 2,4,8, and 16 ports.

• Connectivity: USB, Wi-Fi, auxiliary port, Bluetooth.

• Processing capabilities: onboard processing capabilities or none.

• Available utilities: cellular capabilities, USB, HDMI, GPS, and camera.

RFID System

The system communicates wirelessly and is used for identification.RFID systems transfer data between data carriers, such as RF Tags that are usually attached to objects, carried by people, and antennae.In such a system, information and objects are consolidated and managed more effectively.

Generally, RFID systems vary based on their type and complexity.Every system should, however, contain the following four core components:

• Antennas

• Readers

• Computer databases

• Tags

Mobile RFID readers with RFID tags may be used in simple RFID systems.Additionally, it has an integrated antenna.Nevertheless, complex systems have multiple RFID tags, antennas, and cables.As well as GIPO boxes, multi-port readers, and functionality devices, they are also configured with software to facilitate easy use.


The use of RFID technology is essential in almost all industries.Whether the environment is simple or complex, it offers a reliable identification system.There is still a need for wireless technology because it has proven more useful than barcode scanners.For RFID readers to pick up signals, signals are not directly picked up by line-of-sight.This technology is also capable of covering a larger area, storing more information, and reading RFID tags simultaneously, depending on the frequency used.These features are essential for enhancing efficiency and reliability in a variety of industries.

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