Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-03-06 Origin: Site
NFC is a short-range wireless technology that enables communication between various devices, such as smartphones and payment terminals. Communication is enabled by magnetic field induction.
In sensitive applications, such as mobile payments or accessing secure information, the technology is used. In order to maintain this level of sensitivity, the NFC Forum defines different security & privacy levels.
What is NFC Forum?
It set standards and promotes the use of NFC technology as a not-for-profit industry association. It was founded in 2004 and currently has over 140 members from various industries, including technology, finance, and retail.
By setting guidelines for device interaction and communication protocols, this organization ensures the smooth operation of NFC technology. The NFC certification process is also managed by it.
The system is both interoperable and secure, so you can rest assured that you are protected. In order to complete a transaction or exchange information, you can use any certified NFC device, regardless of its brand.
NFC Forum Tag Types
In addition to storing information, NFC tags can also communicate with NFC-enabled devices. Different types of tags are available, each suited to a specific application and offering varying levels of security and memory. According to the NFC Forum, they have the following features:
Type 1 NFC Tags
Based on ISO14443A standards, these tags can be configured to be read/write (or read-only). Their storage capacity is 96 bytes and they are often used to exchange data or launch websites.
You can expand it to 2K bytes if you need more memory. Using them for more sophisticated tasks is possible because of their flexibility. The data transmission rate is 106 Kbit/s. This is sufficient for basic applications, but may not be sufficient for larger data transfers.
In addition, the tags lack reliable collision avoidance, which makes them unreliable in crowded environments. In addition, if multiple devices attempt to access them simultaneously, you may encounter interference.
Due to these limitations, Type 1 tags are best suited for simple, low-security applications. Marketing campaigns or product packaging often use them because they are affordable. The Innovision and Topaz 512 (BCM20203) tags are examples of NFC Type 1.
Type 2 NFC Tags
Tags of Type 2 are also based on ISO14443A, but they can store more data and are more resistant to data collisions. With their capacity of 144 bytes, they are suitable for more complex tasks involving larger amounts of data. The company also offers a 48-byte storage option for basic tasks.
In addition to having read/write capabilities, these tags can also be configured as read-only. They are suitable for simple tasks but not for high-speed data transfers since their data transmission rate is 106 Kbit/s.
Compared to Type 1 tags, Type 2 tags offer slightly better security and reliability in crowded environments. The two-byte lock control TLVs allow access control and prevent unauthorized changes to the stored data.
As well as being affordable, they are often used in marketing campaigns and product packaging. This NXP MIFARE Ultralight NFC tag is an example of a Type 2 NFC tag. A credit card, an access control card, and an event ticket commonly use this.
Type 3 NFC Tags
Tags with type 3 storage capacity are based on Sony's FeliCa standards. Having a memory of 1/4/9k bytes, they are capable of storing large amounts of data and performing complex tasks.
This type of system is complex and highly efficient, but it is also more expensive and often used in industrial or high-security settings. Asian markets also use type 3 tags, which can be changed from read-only to read/write.
A high-grade encryption system prevents unauthorized access and changes to stored data on Type 3 tags compared to Type 1 & 2. Therefore, it is suitable for storing sensitive information, such as payment details or medical records.
Data can be transferred quickly since the transmission speed is 212/424 Kbit/s. Ticketing and transportation systems commonly use NFC Type 3 tags, such as the Sony FeliCa Lite-S.
Type 4 NFC Tags
In comparison to Types 1, 2, and 3, Type 4 tags are based on ISO14443A and B standards and have a larger storage capacity. A 32k bytes of memory makes them suitable for tasks requiring high capacity.
A high-grade encryption system for secure storage and access control is also included with these tags. DESFire EV1 from NXP is an example of a Type 4 NFC tag. Event tickets and access control cards commonly use it.
In addition to being more expensive, Type 4 tags are often used in industrial or high-security environments. Despite their read/write capabilities, they can be configured to read-only if needed. They transmit data at a rate of 106/212/424 Kbits/second, allowing for fast transfers.
Type 5 NFC Tags
Based on ISO15693 standards, Type 5 tags are rugged and ideal for industrial use. A larger storage capacity of up to 2k bytes makes them resistant to physical damage, such as scratches and water. A tag with 256 bytes is also available, as are tags with 896 bytes and tags with 1280 bytes.
Rewriting the stored data is possible with their read/write capabilities. This is an ugly picture
Which NFC Tag Type is Best?
In the end, the best NFC tag type for a specific application depends on its unique needs and requirements. In addition to storage capacity, security measures, transmission rate, physical durability, and cost, there are other factors to consider.
If your budget is tight and you need to store a small amount of data, you should use Type 1. For low-security marketing campaigns or product packaging, Type 2 tags are also affordable and offer slightly better storage capacity.
Consider Type 3 or 4 tags when storing sensitive information or performing high-capacity tasks. A Type 5 tag may be the right choice if you're looking for a rugged option.