There are a lot of things you don't know about RFID chips
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There are a lot of things you don't know about RFID chips

Views: 1     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-03-06      Origin: Site

RFID Chips - What Are They? Radio waves are used by RFID chips to transfer data from a reader to the chip.In an RFID tag, it is the smallest, yet most important part, since it contains the data memory.

A coiled wire surrounds the chip mostly in the center, which is called an antenna.From the chip to the reader, radio waves are transmitted by the antenna.Powering the tag releases electromagnetic waves containing the required information.

RFID chips are used in access management, security access, library systems, time tracking (via electronic logging), identification documents, and medical records.

Table of Contents hide

1. RFID Chip History

2. How Does RFID Chip Work

3. RFID Chip Components

4. RFID Chip Functionality

5. Types of RFID Chips

6. RFID Chip Technology

7. RFID Chip Identification

8. RFID Chip Security

9. Applications of RFID Chip

RFID Chip History

A unique identifier for each object would make it possible to identify and track specific items using radio waves, according to Harry Stockman in 1982.Inventory management and identification systems would later be revolutionized by this idea.Later that year, his findings were published in IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques.

Professor Sandy Pentland and Researcher David Brock (who coined the term "RFID") established the Auto-ID Lab at MIT in 1994.As a result of their research, EPCglobal Incorporated was formed - an organization responsible for standardizing RFID technology worldwide.Electronic product codes (EPCs) are a new numbering system.Due to their greater functionality and improved security features, such as encryption, EPC tags could replace barcodes entirely.

By the end of 2000, companies like Gillette, Procter & Gamble, Motorola, and UPS were testing RFID technology in their supply chain management systems.RFID chips were used to tag over 110 million items for inventory purposes in 2002 alone, sending data to electronic hand-held devices carried by warehouse workers.

How Does RFID Chip Work

There are two types of RFID chips (tags) on the market - active and passive.Activated chips have their own power sources, while passive chips are powered by a reader's electromagnetic field.

By detecting radio waves, a reader can recognize the unique integrated circuits in the chips.When powered, the RFID chip transmits data to the reader.Readers can transmit radio waves up to 100 meters away from tag antennas.

There are certain standards that make RFID chips compatible with each other.In other words, no matter which company manufactured the tag, one device will be able to read any standard-compliant tag nearby.

RFID Chip Components

RFID chips are typically made from silicon, packaged in small cases with antennas, and include an integrated circuit.Small grains of rice or sand resemble this.

RFID devices are composed of three components:

  • The tag (chip)

  • The transponder

  • The reader

Each tag contains unique information, while the transponder receives energy from the reader unit by electromagnetic induction and transmits it back.

By providing information stored on the tag's memory chip, this electronic transaction between reader and transponder enables objects to be identified quickly.

RFID Chip Functionality

The communication link between RFID units consists of two units.

  • Readers are connected to databases through access points, usually computers or programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  • The chip serves as a transponder, storing and/or forwarding information as needed by the reader.Readers and transponders communicate bidirectionally: either can initiate communication.

Reader units and transponders communicate via electromagnetic induction using high-frequency radio signals that can penetrate plastic, wood, and concrete without losing signal strength.Using this energy signal for its internal power supply, RFID tags can transmit over longer distances.

It is important to note that reader devices are only part of a much larger system that includes the computer to which they are attached as well.A wireless network usually connects this device to other computers as well as databases from which it can extract information relevant to its role in an access control system.

A door reader, for example, reading a tag, identifies and authenticates a user as well as storing their specific permissions and time signatures.This allows restricted areas to be monitored for human traffic.Additionally, it ensures that visitors and staff are accountable.

Types of RFID Chips

There are two different types of RFID chips currently available on the market:

  • Silicon Chip. Microchips are encapsulated in epoxy resin and then inserted into plastic or glass tags with a thin layer of epoxy resin

  • Printed Circuit Board (or PCB). Electrical components are not included in this chip.Rather, it is composed of an etched copper antenna and a computer chip.

According to the intended use of RFID chips, silicon or PCB technology can be used.

There are different types of RFID readers, just as there are different types of RFID chips.Label printers, for example (which may also incorporate antennas to transmit information) can only print labels for items that already have labels attached.Alternatively, pallet scanners (used for high-speed stock control) use long-range antennas to identify tags across wide areas at very high speeds across wide areas.

RFID Chip Technology            

In order to make RFID chips, thin sheets of glass or Mylar substrate material are used.A special type of magnetic alloy makes it responsive to very low frequency (VLF) signals at 13.56 MHz.

It is supplied by most reader devices, along with the carrier signal that activates the amplifier circuit on the tag.An RFID chip would remain "asleep" unless an incoming signal from a reader woke it up. This is a simple analogy.

RFID Chip Identification

Authenticating people and goods is the primary function of identification.It is essential to balance three factors in this process:

  • Privacy – ensuring that people cannot be identified unless they have been authorized to access certain resources

  • Security – preventing unauthorized people from gaining access

  • Convenience – making the process of identification as simple and speedy as possible

The RFID chip identification process is simple and efficient.Authenized individuals must wear RFID tags containing all their information in the chip.RFID readers scan tags, receive data, and compare it with existing databases to grant them access.Those who match are allowed access, and vice versa.

During the exit point of a supply chain management system, RFID-tagged items pass one or more RFID reader devices.

Tags transmit their unique serial numbers to readers where they are decoded and translated into human-readable form before being stored in a central database.Any reader device can be used for this process.

RFID Chip Security  

Wave-like patterns propagate through space when an electromagnetic signal is transmitted.We use wireless communication systems every day, such as cordless phones, FM radios, cellular phones, and various other short-range and long-range communication schemes.

Several factors determine the strength and direction of any given signal, such as:

  • The power output of the transmitting antenna

  • The distance between transmitter and receiver

  • Obstacles such as walls or furniture

  • Atmospheric conditions

  • Presence of other RF transmitters

Because RFID signals have a low power, they are susceptible to interference.In order for information to be passed, they must be in proximity to the reader (usually within 100 meters).

In addition, the RFID chip stores encrypted information.Because of this, cybercriminals are unable to access the information unless they steal the RFID reader that was specifically assigned to the information.

Applications of RFID Chip

RFID chips can be used in many different applications such as:

  • Automated customer identification

  • Automated toll collection systems

  • E-tickets/ electronic boarding passes

  • Access control systems

  • Robotic guidance systems

  • Supply chain management

  • Article surveillance/security tagging

While RFID works well in open spaces with few obstacles to interfere with signal transmission, it does not perform well when passing through walls, floors, or even tightly packed goods.Stacking items on top of each other makes RFID unsuitable for replacing barcodes.

It is best to use RFID for tagging large objects that will not move around too much during transportation (such as vehicles).As barcodes do not store as much data as RFID tags, they are ideal for tagging goods that require a lot of information.

RFID tags can store data such as stock dates, purchases, manufacturing dates, batch numbers, etc.By contrast, barcodes are prone to environmental destruction and do not store much information.Many applications have replaced barcodes with RFID technology due to these factors.

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